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What are plant based cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids)?

The classical cannabinoids are concentrated in a viscous resin produced in structures known as glandular trichomes. At least 113 different cannabinoids have been isolated from the Cannabis plant. Below, the main classes of cannabinoids from Cannabis are shown.

 

  • CBDA

Cannabidiolic acid turns into CBD through decarboxylation (heating). If you’re juicing raw cannabis or consuming the plant in any other raw form, you are ingesting CBDA and not CBD. The effects of CBDA are still being investigated by scientists, however, animal studies suggest it could be an effective anti-tumour, anti-nausea, and anti-inflammatory agent. 

 

  • Delta-9-THC

As an activator of the CB1 receptor, Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol — commonly known as THC — is the main intoxicating component of cannabis. THC intoxication has been shown to increase blood flow to the prefrontal cortex, the region of the brain responsible for decision-making, attention, motor skills, and other executive functions. The exact nature of THC’s effects on these functions will vary from person to person. When THC binds to CB1 receptors in the brain’s reward system, it can trigger feelings of euphoria. Much of THC’s ability to relieve pain is due to its interaction with CB1 receptors in the midbrain.

 

  • THCA

Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid is the most common cannabinoid found in the raw cannabis plant. THCA is non-intoxicating but converts into the intoxicating THC when decarboxylated (by heat). Though far less well-known than THC, THCA has its own potential for treating inflammation, nausea and vomiting, and nervous-system degeneration.

 

  • CBDV

Cannabidivarin is a relative of CBD; both derive from the cannabinoid precursor CBGVA. CBDV has been found to have anti-epileptic and anticonvulsant properties. 

 

  • CBDVa

Cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA) is the acidic form of CBDV found in raw cannabis.

 

  • CBG

Cannabigerol is a decarboxylated form of CBGA. CBG weakly binds to both CB1 and CB2 receptors. It also inhibits the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, known as the “bliss molecule.” CBG is currently being investigated for its potential to stimulate appetite and treat Huntington’s and irritable bowel disease (IBS), along with other health benefits. 

 

  • CBN

Cannabinol is a degraded form of THC, commonly found in old or ageing cannabis. CBN remains primarily referenced as a potent sleep aid, though research has not shown such results in humans. It does, however, have potential in fighting pain, bacteria, inflammation, convulsions and has been shown to stimulate appetite and bone-cell growth

 

  • CBC

Cannabichromene is the decarboxylated form of cannabichromene carboxylic acid (CBCA). CBC may alleviate pain and boost neural cells that assist in brain function.

 

  • THCV

Tetrahydrocannabivarin  is typically only found in cannabis in trace amounts, but it may contribute to the anti-epileptic and anticonvulsant effects of cannabis. Although research is still ongoing, THCV may also be useful in treating obesity.

 

  • THCVA

Tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid (THCVA) is the acidic form of THCV. More research is needed to fully understand its potential effects.

 

  • Delta-8-THC

Delta-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol is a close relative of the more prominent delta-9-THC. It only differs from delta-9-THC by the placement of one atomic double bond. More research is needed to discern the exact differences between delta-8-THC and delta-9, but early studies indicate that delta-8-THC may be less intoxicating.

 

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